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Ureteroscopy has been recognized as a major method for treating ureteric calculi. Although invasive, the development of smaller and more flexible ureteroscopes, and a new generation of various intracorporial lithotripters, has made this procedure safer and more effective. Recently ureteroscopy has been used to treat stones in the lower urinary tract as well as those in the upper tract. No incision is made in this procedure. Instead, a small fiberoptic instrument called a ureteroscope is passed through the urethra and bladder into the ureter to locate the stone and either remove it with a cage like device or shatter it with an energy probe.


Stenting has been primarily used to treat urinary obstruction and the frequency of this use is increasing with the increase in ureteroscopic management. In cases of acute obstruction, a stent is used temporarily to stabilize the patient until definitive therapy. The stent is generally placed if there is accompanying ureteric injury or in those with a residual stone after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Placing a ureteric stent after ureteroscopy with stone extraction is done by some urologists routinely to prevent possible stenosis or to decrease secondary pain caused by mucosal oedema.